Heinrich Theodor Böll (Boell) [ Keulen 1917 - 1985]
Boll's first stories were published in 1947. In his first novels, Der Zug war punktlich (1949; The Train Was on Time) and Wo warst du Adam? (1951; Adam, Where Art Thou?), he describes the grimness and despair of soldiers' lives. The uneasiness of reality is explored in the life of a mechanic in Das Brot der fruhen Jahre (1955; The Bread of Our Early Years) and in a family of architects in Billard um halb zehn (1959; Billiards at Half-Past Nine), which, with its interior monologues and flashbacks, is his most complex novel. In the popular Ansichten eines Clowns (1963; The Clown), the protagonist deteriorates through drinking from being a well-paid entertainer to a begging street musician.
Boll's other writings include Und sagte kein einziges Wort (1953; Acquainted with the Night) and Ende einer Dienstfahrt (1966; End of a Mission), in which the trial of a father and son lays bare the character of the townspeople. In his longest novel, Gruppenbild mit Dame (1971; Group Portrait with Lady), Boll presented a panorama of German life from the world wars to the 1970s through the accounts of the many people who have figured in the life of his middle-aged "lady," Leni Pfeiffer. Die verlorene Ehre der Katharina Blum (1974; The Lost Honour of Katharina Blum) attacked modern journalistic ethics as well as the values of contemporary Germany. Was soll aus dem Jungen bloss werden?, oder, Irgendwas mit Buchern (1981; What's to Become of the Boy?, or Something to do with Books) is a memoir of the period 1933-37.
A Christian and a pacifist, Boll developed a highly moral but individual vision of the society around him. A frequent theme of his was the individual's acceptance or refusal of personal responsibility. Boll used austere prose and frequently sharp satire to present his antiwar, nonconformist point of view. He was widely regarded as the outstanding humanist interpreter of his nation's experiences in World War II.